To run apps built with the Bottle web framework using Unit:

  1. Install Unit with a Python 2.7+ language module.

  2. Create a virtual environment to install Bottle’s PIP package, for instance:

    $ cd /path/to/app/
    $ python --version
          Python X.Y.Z
    $ python -m venv venv
    $ source venv/bin/activate
    $ pip install bottle
    $ deactivate


    Create your virtual environment with a Python version that matches the language module from Step 1 up to the minor number (X.Y in this example). Also, the app type in Step 5 must resolve to a similarly matching version; Unit doesn’t infer it from the environment.

  3. Let’s try an updated version of the quickstart app, saving it as /path/to/app/

    from bottle import Bottle, template
    app = Bottle()
    def hello(name):
        return template('Hello, {{name}}!', name=name)
    # run(app, host='localhost', port=8080)

    Note that we’ve dropped the server code.

  4. Run the following command so Unit can access the application directory:

    # chown -R unit:unit /path/to/app/


    The unit:unit user-group pair is available only with official packages, Docker images, and some third-party repos. Otherwise, account names may differ; run the ps aux | grep unitd command to be sure.

    For further details, including permissions, see the security checklist.

  5. Next, prepare the Bottle configuration for Unit (use real values for type, home, and path):

        "listeners": {
            "*:80": {
                "pass": "applications/bottle"
        "applications": {
            "bottle": {
                "type": "python X.Y",
                "path": "/path/to/app/",
                "home": "/path/to/app/venv/",
                "module": "wsgi",
                "callable": "app"
  6. Upload the updated configuration. Assuming the JSON above was added to config.json:

    # curl -X PUT --data-binary @config.json --unix-socket \
           /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/


    The control socket path may vary; run unitd -h or see Startup and Shutdown for details.

    After a successful update, your app should be available on the listener’s IP address and port:

    $ curl http://localhost/hello/Unit
          Hello, Unit!