NGINX Unit

Configuration§

Quick Start§

To run an application in Unit, first set up an application object. Let’s store it in a file to PUT it into the config/applications section of Unit’s control API, available via the control socket at http://localhost/:

# cat << EOF > config.json

    > {
    >     "type": "php",
    >     "root": "/www/blogs/scripts"
    > }
    > EOF

# curl -X PUT --data-binary @config.json --unix-socket \
       /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/applications/blogs

    {
        "success": "Reconfiguration done."
    }

Unit starts the application process. Next, reference the application object from a listener object, comprising an IP (or a wildcard to match any IPs) and a port number, in the config/listeners section of the API:

# cat << EOF > config.json

    > {
    >     "pass": "applications/blogs"
    > }
    > EOF

# curl -X PUT --data-binary @config.json --unix-socket \
       /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/listeners/127.0.0.1:8300

    {
        "success": "Reconfiguration done."
    }

Unit accepts requests at the specified IP and port, passing them to the application process. Your app works!

Finally, check the resulting configuration:

# curl --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/

    {
        "listeners": {
            "127.0.0.1:8300": {
                "pass": "applications/blogs"
            }
        },

        "applications": {
            "blogs": {
                "type": "php",
                "root": "/www/blogs/scripts/"
            }
        }
    }

You can upload the entire configuration at once or update it in portions. For details of configuration techniques, see below. For a full configuration sample, see here.

Configuration Management§

Unit’s configuration is JSON-based, accessed via the control socket, and entirely manageable over HTTP.

Note

Here, we use curl to query Unit’s control API, prefixing URIs with http://localhost as expected by this utility. You can use any tool capable of making HTTP requests; also, the hostname is irrelevant for Unit.

To address parts of the configuration, query the control socket over HTTP; URI path segments of your requests to the API must be names of its JSON object members or indexes of its array elements.

You can manipulate the API with the following HTTP methods:

MethodAction
GETReturns the entity at the request URI as JSON value in the HTTP response body.
POSTUpdates the array at the request URI, appending the JSON value from the HTTP request body.
PUTReplaces the entity at the request URI and returns status message in the HTTP response body.
DELETEDeletes the entity at the request URI and returns status message in the HTTP response body.

Before a change, Unit evaluates the difference it causes in the entire configuration; if there’s none, nothing is done. For example, you can’t restart an app by uploading the same configuration it already has.

Unit performs actual reconfiguration steps as gracefully as possible: running tasks expire naturally, connections are properly closed, processes end smoothly.

Any type of update can be done with different URIs, provided you supply the right JSON:

# curl -X PUT -d '{ "pass": "applications/blogs" }' --unix-socket \
       /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/listeners/127.0.0.1:8300

# curl -X PUT -d '"applications/blogs"' --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/config/listeners/127.0.0.1:8300/pass

However, mind that the first command replaces the entire listener, dropping any other options you could have configured, whereas the second one replaces only the pass value and leaves other options intact.

Examples§

To minimize typos and effort, avoid embedding JSON payload in your commands; instead, consider storing your configuration snippets for review and reuse. Suppose you save your application object as wiki.json:

{
    "type": "python",
    "module": "wsgi",
    "user": "www-wiki",
    "group": "www-wiki",
    "path": "/www/wiki/"
}

Use it to set up an application called wiki-prod:

# curl -X PUT --data-binary @/path/to/wiki.json \
       --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/applications/wiki-prod

Use it again to set up a development version of the same app called wiki-dev:

# curl -X PUT --data-binary @/path/to/wiki.json \
       --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/applications/wiki-dev

Toggle the wiki-dev app to another source code directory:

# curl -X PUT -d '"/www/wiki-dev/"' \
       --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/applications/wiki-dev/path

Next, boost the process count for the production app to warm it up a bit:

# curl -X PUT -d '5' \
       --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/applications/wiki-prod/processes

Add a listener for the wiki-prod app to accept requests at all host IPs:

# curl -X PUT -d '{ "pass": "applications/wiki-prod" }' \
       --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock 'http://localhost/config/listeners/*:8400'

Plug the wiki-dev app into the listener to test it:

# curl -X PUT -d '"applications/wiki-dev"' --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       'http://localhost/config/listeners/*:8400/pass'

Then rewire the listener, adding a URI-based route to the development version of the app:

# cat << EOF > config.json

    > [
    >     {
    >         "match": {
    >             "uri": "/dev/*"
    >         },
    >
    >         "action": {
    >             "pass": "applications/wiki-dev"
    >         }
    >     }
    > ]
    > EOF

# curl -X PUT --data-binary @config.json --unix-socket \
       /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/routes

# curl -X PUT -d '"routes"' --unix-socket \
       /path/to/control.unit.sock 'http://localhost/config/listeners/*:8400/pass'

Next, let’s change the wiki-dev’s URI prefix in the routes array using its index (0):

# curl -X PUT -d '"/development/*"' --unix-socket=/path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/config/routes/0/match/uri

Let’s add a route to the prod app: POST always adds to the array end, so there’s no need for an index:

# curl -X POST -d '{"match": {"uri": "/production/*"}, \
       "action": {"pass": "applications/wiki-prod"}}'  \
       --unix-socket=/path/to/control.unit.sock        \
       http://localhost/config/routes/

Otherwise, use PUT with the array’s last index (0 in our sample) plus one to add the new item at the end:

# curl -X PUT -d '{"match": {"uri": "/production/*"}, \
       "action": {"pass": "applications/wiki-prod"}}' \
       --unix-socket=/path/to/control.unit.sock       \
       http://localhost/config/routes/1/

To get the complete config section:

# curl --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/config/

    {
        "listeners": {
            "*:8400": {
                "pass": "routes"
            }
        },

        "applications": {
            "wiki-dev": {
                "type": "python",
                "module": "wsgi",
                "user": "www-wiki",
                "group": "www-wiki",
                "path": "/www/wiki-dev/"
            },

            "wiki-prod": {
                "type": "python",
                "processes": 5,
                "module": "wsgi",
                "user": "www-wiki",
                "group": "www-wiki",
                "path": "/www/wiki/"
            }
        },

        "routes": [
            {
                "match": {
                    "uri": "/development/*"
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/wiki-dev"
                }
            },
            {
                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/wiki-prod"
                }
            }
        ]
    }

To obtain the wiki-dev application object:

# curl --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/config/applications/wiki-dev

    {
        "type": "python",
        "module": "wsgi",
        "user": "www-wiki",
        "group": "www-wiki",
        "path": "/www/wiki-dev/"
    }

You can save JSON returned by such requests as .json files for update or review:

# curl --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/config/ > config.json

To drop the listener on *:8400:

# curl -X DELETE --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       'http://localhost/config/listeners/*:8400'

Mind that you can’t delete objects that other objects rely on, such as a route still referenced by a listener:

# curl -X DELETE --unix-socket /var/run/unit/control.sock \
       http://localhost/config/routes

    {
        "error": "Invalid configuration.",
        "detail": "Request \"pass\" points to invalid location \"routes\"."
    }

Listeners§

To start serving HTTP requests with Unit, define a listener in the config/listeners section of the API. A listener uniquely combines a host IP (or a wildcard to match all host IPs) and a port that Unit binds to.

Note

On Linux-based systems, wildcard listeners can’t overlap with other listeners on the same port due to kernel-imposed limitations; for example, *:8080 conflicts with 127.0.0.1:8080.

Unit dispatches the requests it receives to applications or routes referenced by listeners. You can plug several listeners into one app or route, or use a single listener for hot-swapping during testing or staging.

Available options:

OptionDescription
pass (required)Qualified app or route name: "pass": "routes/route66", "pass": "applications/qwk2mart". Mutually exclusive with application.
tlsSSL/TLS configuration object. Its only option, certificate, enables secure communication via the listener; it must name a certificate chain that you have configured earlier.
application (deprecated)

App name: "application": "qwk2mart". Mutually exclusive with pass.

Warning

This option is deprecated. Please update your configurations to use pass instead.

Here, local requests at port 8300 are passed to the blogs app; all requests at 8400 follow the main route:

{
    "127.0.0.1:8300": {
        "pass": "applications/blogs",
        "tls": {
            "certificate": "blogs-cert"
        }
    },

    "*:8400": {
        "pass": "routes/main"
    }
}

Routes§

Unit configuration offers a routes object to enable elaborate internal routing between listeners and apps. Listeners pass requests to routes or directly to apps. Requests are matched against route step conditions; a request matching all conditions of a step is passed to the app or the route that the step specifies.

In its simplest form, routes can be a single route array:

{
     "listeners": {
         "*:8300": {
             "pass": "routes"
         }
     },

     "routes": [ "simply referred to as routes" ]
}

Another form is an object with one or more named route arrays as members:

{
     "listeners": {
         "*:8300": {
             "pass": "routes/main"
         }
     },

     "routes": {
         "main": [ "named route, qualified name: routes/main" ],
         "route66": [ "named route, qualified name: routes/route66" ]
     }
}

Route Object§

A route array contains step objects as elements; a request passed to a route traverses them sequentially.

Steps have the following options:

OptionDescription
action/pass (required)Route’s destination; identical to pass in a listener.
match

Object that defines the step conditions.

  • If the request fits all match conditions in a step, the step’s pass is followed.
  • If the request doesn’t match a condition, Unit proceeds to the next step of the route.
  • If the request doesn’t match any steps, a 404 “Not Found” response is returned.

If you omit match, requests are passed unconditionally; to avoid issues, use no more than one such step per route, placing it last. See below for condition matching details.

An example:

{
    "routes": [
        {
            "match": {
                "host": "example.com",
                "uri": "/admin/*"
            },

            "action": {
                "pass": "applications/php5_app"
             }
        },
        {
            "action": {
                "pass": "applications/php7_app"
             }
        }
     ]
}

A more elaborate example with chained routes:

{
    "routes": {
        "main": [
            {
                "match": {
                    "arguments": {
                        "site_access": "yes"
                    }
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "routes/site"
                }
            },
            {
                "match": {
                    "host": "blog.example.com"
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/blog"
                }
            }
        ],

        "site": [ "..." ]
    }
}

Condition Matching§

To route incoming requests, Unit applies pattern-based conditions to individual request properties:

OptionDescriptionCase‑Sensitive
argumentsParameter arguments supplied in the request URI.Yes
cookiesCookies supplied with the request.Yes
headersHeader fields supplied with the request.No
hostHost from the Host header field without port number, normalized by removing the trailing period (if any).No
methodMethod from the request line.No
uriURI path without arguments, normalized by decoding the “%XX” sequences, resolving relative path references (“.” and “..”), and compressing adjacent slashes into one.Yes

For host, method, and uri, simple matching is used; other properties use compound matching.

Simple Matching§

A simple property in a match object is matched against a string pattern or an array of patterns:

{
    "match": {
        "simple_property1": "pattern",
        "simple_property2": ["pattern", "pattern", "..." ]
    },

    "action": {
        "pass": "..."
     }
}

To be a match against the condition, the property must meet two requirements:

  • If there are patterns without negation, at least one of them matches the property value.
  • No negation-based patterns match the property value.

Patterns must match the value symbol by symbol, with the exception of wildcards (*) and negations (!):

  • A wildcard matches zero or more arbitrary characters; wildcards can only *prefix exact patterns, suffix* them, *enclose* them, or split*them in two.
  • A negation rejects all matches to the remainder of the pattern; pattern can only start with it.

Note

This type of matching can be explained with set operations. Suppose set U comprises all possible values of a property; set P comprises strings that match any patterns without negation; set N comprises strings that match any negation-based patterns. In this scheme, the matching set will be:

UP \ N if P ≠ ∅
U \ N if P = ∅

A few examples:

{
    "host": "*.example.com"
}

Only subdomains of example.com will match.

{
    "host": ["eu-*.example.com", "!eu-5.example.com"]
}

Here, any eu- subdomains of example.com will match except eu-5.example.com.

{
    "method": ["!HEAD", "!GET"]
}

Any methods will match except HEAD and GET.

You can also combine special characters in a pattern:

{
    "uri": "!*/api/*"
}

Here, any URIs will match except the ones containing /api/.

Compound Matching§

This type of matching is used for arguments, cookies, and headers properties.

A compound property is matched against an object with names and patterns or an array of such objects:

{
    "match": {
        "compound_property1": {
            "name1": "pattern",
            "name2": ["pattern", "..."]
        },

        "compound_property2": [
            {
                "name1": "pattern",
                "name2": ["pattern", "pattern", "..."]
            },

            {
                "name1": "pattern",
                "name3": ["pattern", "pattern", "..."]
            }
        ]
    },

    "action": {
        "pass": "..."
    }
}

To match a single condition object, the request must contain all items explicitly named in the object; their values are matched against patterns in the same manner as property values during simple matching.

To match an object array, it’s sufficient to match any single one of its objects.

A few examples:

{
    "arguments": {
        "mode": "strict",
        "access": "!full"
    }
}

This requires mode=strict and any access argument other than access=full in the URI.

{
    "headers": [
        {
            "Accept-Encoding": "*gzip*",
            "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0*"
        },

        {
            "User-Agent": "curl*"
        }
    ]
}

This matches all requests that either use gzip and identify as Mozilla/5.0 or list curl as the user agent.

Note

You can mix simple and compound properties in a match condition.

Passing Requests§

To match a step, the request must fit all property conditions listed in it.

If all properties match or you omit match entirely, Unit routes the request where pass points to:

{
    "match": {
        "host": [ "*.example.com", "!php7.example.com" ],
        "uri": [ "/admin/*", "/store/*" ],
        "method": "POST"
    },

    "action": {
        "pass": "applications/php5_app"
     }
}

Here, all POST requests for URIs prefixed with /admin/ or /store/ within any subdomains of example.com (except php7) are routed to php5_app.

Applications§

Each app that Unit runs is defined as an object in the config/applications section of the control API; it lists the app’s language and settings, its runtime limits, process model, and various language-specific options.

Note

Our official language support packages include end-to-end examples of application configuration, available for your reference at /usr/share/doc/<module name>/examples/ after package installation.

Here, Unit runs 20 processes of a PHP app called blogs, stored in the /www/blogs/scripts/ directory:

{
    "blogs": {
        "type": "php",
        "processes": 20,
        "root": "/www/blogs/scripts/"
    }
}

App objects have a number of options shared between all application languages:

OptionDescription
type (required)

Application type: external (Go and Node.js), java, perl, php, python, or ruby.

Except with external, you can detail the runtime version: "type": "python 3", "type": "python 3.4", or even "type": "python 3.4.9rc1". Unit searches its modules and uses the latest matching one, reporting an error if none match.

For example, if you have only one PHP module, 7.1.9, it matches "php", "php 7", "php 7.1", and "php 7.1.9". If you have modules for versions 7.0.2 and 7.0.23, set "type": "php 7.0.2" to specify the former; otherwise, PHP 7.0.23 will be used.

limitsObject that accepts two integer options, timeout and requests. Their values govern the life cycle of an application process. For details, see here.
processes

Integer or object. Integer sets a static number of app processes; object options max, spare, and idle_timeout enable dynamic management. For details, see here.

The default value is 1.

working_directoryWorking directory for the app. If omitted, working directory of Unit daemon is used.
userUsername that runs the app process. If omitted, nobody is used.
groupGroup name that runs the app process. If omitted, user’s primary group is used.
environmentEnvironment variables to be passed to the application.

Also, you need to set type-specific options to run the app. This Python app uses path and module:

{
    "type": "python 3.6",
    "processes": 16,
    "working_directory": "/www/python-apps",
    "path": "blog",
    "module": "blog.wsgi",
    "user": "blog",
    "group": "blog",
    "environment": {
        "DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE": "blog.settings.prod",
        "DB_ENGINE": "django.db.backends.postgresql",
        "DB_NAME": "blog",
        "DB_HOST": "127.0.0.1",
        "DB_PORT": "5432"
    }
}

Processes and Limits§

Apps have two options, limits and processes, that control how an app’s processes are managed by Unit.

Request Limits§

The limits object controls request handling by the app process and has two integer options:

OptionDescription
timeoutRequest timeout in seconds. If an app process exceeds this limit while handling a request, Unit alerts it to cancel the request and returns an HTTP error to the client.
requestsMaximum number of requests Unit allows an app process to serve. If the limit is reached, the process is restarted; this helps to mitigate possible memory leaks or other cumulative issues.

Example:

{
    "type": "python",
    "working_directory": "/www/python-apps",
    "module": "blog.wsgi",
    "limits": {
        "timeout": 10,
        "requests": 1000
    }
}

Process Management§

The processes option offers choice between static and dynamic process management. If you set it to an integer, Unit immediately launches the given number of app processes and keeps them without scaling.

To enable dynamic prefork model for your app, supply a processes object with the following options:

OptionDescription
max

Maximum number of application processes that Unit will maintain (busy and idle).

The default value is 1.

spareMinimum number of idle processes that Unit tries to reserve for an app. When the app is started, spare idle processes are launched; Unit assigns incoming requests to existing idle processes, forking new idles to maintain the spare level if max allows. As processes complete requests and turn idle, Unit terminates extra ones after idle_timeout.
idle_timeoutTime in seconds that Unit waits before terminating an idle process which exceeds spare.

If processes is omitted entirely, Unit creates 1 static process. If an empty object is provided: "processes": {}, dynamic behavior with default option values is assumed.

Here, Unit allows 10 processes maximum, keeps 5 idles, and terminates extra idles after 20 seconds:

{
    "max": 10,
    "spare": 5,
    "idle_timeout": 20
}

Go/Node.js§

To run your Go or Node.js applications in Unit, you need to configure them and modify their source code as suggested below. Let’s start with the app configuration; besides common options, you have the following:

OptionDescription
executable (required)

Pathname of the application, absolute or relative to working_directory.

For Node.js, supply your .js pathname and start the file itself with a proper shebang:

#!/usr/bin/env node

Note

Make sure to chmod +x the file you list here so Unit can start it.

argumentsCommand line arguments to be passed to the application. The example below is equivalent to /www/chat/bin/chat_app --tmp-files /tmp/go-cache.

Example:

{
    "type": "external",
    "working_directory": "/www/chat",
    "executable": "bin/chat_app",
    "user": "www-go",
    "group": "www-go",
    "arguments": ["--tmp-files", "/tmp/go-cache"]
}

Before applying the configuration, update the application itself.

Modifying Go Sources§

In the import section, reference the "nginx/unit" package that you have installed or built earlier:

import (
    ...
    "nginx/unit"
    ...
)

Note

The package is required only to build the app; there’s no need to install it in the target environment.

In the main() function, replace the http.ListenandServe call with unit.ListenAndServe:

func main() {
    ...
    http.HandleFunc("/", handler)
    ...
    //http.ListenAndServe(":8080", nil)
    unit.ListenAndServe(":8080", nil)
    ...
}

The resulting application works as follows:

  • When you run it standalone, the unit.ListenAndServe call falls back to http functionality.
  • When Unit runs it, unit.ListenAndServe communicates with Unit’s router process directly, ignoring the address supplied as its first argument and relying on the listener’s settings instead.

Note

For an example of Go app configuration, see our Grafana howto. Also, see a sample in Go.

Modifying Node.js Sources§

First, you need to have the unit-http package installed. If it’s global, symlink it in your project directory:

# npm link unit-http

Do the same if you move a Unit-hosted application to a new system where unit-http is installed globally.

Next, use unit-http instead of http in your code:

var http = require('unit-http');

Note

For examples of Node.js app configuration, see our Express and Docker howtos or a sample in Node.js.

Java§

First, make sure to install Unit along with the Java language module.

Besides common options, you have the following:

OptionDescription
webapp (required)Pathname of the application’s packaged or unpackaged .war file.
classpathArray of paths to your app’s required libraries (may point to directories or .jar files).
optionsArray of strings defining JVM runtime options.

Example:

{
    "type": "java",
    "classpath": ["/www/qwk2mart/lib/qwk2mart-2.0.0.jar"],
    "options": ["-Dlog_path=/var/log/qwk2mart.log"],
    "webapp": "/www/qwk2mart/qwk2mart.war"
}

Note

For an example of Java app configuration, see our Jira howto. Also, see a JSP sample.

Perl§

First, make sure to install Unit along with the Perl language module.

Besides common options, you have the following:

OptionDescription
script (required)PSGI script path.

Example:

{
    "type": "perl",
    "script": "/www/bugtracker/app.psgi",
    "working_directory": "/www/bugtracker",
    "processes": 10,
    "user": "www",
    "group": "www"
}

Note

For an example of Perl app configuration, see our Bugzilla howto. Also, see a sample in Perl.

PHP§

First, make sure to install Unit along with the PHP language module.

Besides common options, you have the following:

OptionDescription
root (required)Base directory of your PHP app’s file structure. All URI paths are relative to this value.
index

Filename appended to any URI paths ending with a slash; applies if script is omitted.

Default value is index.php.

optionsObject that defines php.ini location and options. For details, see below.
scriptFilename of a root-based PHP script that Unit uses to serve all requests to the app.

The index and script options enable two modes of operation:

  • If script is set, all requests to the application are handled by the script you provide.
  • Otherwise, the requests are served according to their URI paths; if script name is omitted, index is used.

You can customize php.ini via the options object:

OptionDescription
filePathname of the php.ini file with PHP configuration directives.
admin, userObjects for extra directives. Values in admin are set in PHP_INI_SYSTEM mode, so the app can’t alter them; user values are set in PHP_INI_USER mode and may be updated in runtime.

Directives from php.ini are overridden by settings supplied in admin and user objects.

Note

Values in options must be strings (for example, "max_file_uploads": "4", not "max_file_uploads": 4); for boolean flags, use "0" and "1" only. For details about PHP_INI_* modes, see the PHP docs.

Example:

{
    "type": "php",
    "processes": 20,
    "root": "/www/blogs/scripts/",
    "user": "www-blogs",
    "group": "www-blogs",

    "options": {
        "file": "/etc/php.ini",
        "admin": {
            "memory_limit": "256M",
            "variables_order": "EGPCS",
            "expose_php": "0"
        },
        "user": {
            "display_errors": "0"
        }
    }
}

Note

For an example of PHP app configuration, see our WordPress howto. Also, see a sample in PHP.

Python§

First, make sure to install Unit along with the Python language module.

Besides common options, you have the following:

OptionDescription
module (required)WSGI module name. To run the app, Unit looks for an application callable in the module you supply; the module itself is imported just like in Python.
pathAdditional lookup path for Python modules; this string is inserted into sys.path.
home

Path to Python’s virtual environment for the app. Absolute or relative to working_directory.

Note

The Python version used to run the app depends on the type value; Unit ignores the command-line interpreter from the virtual environment for performance considerations.

Example:

{
    "type": "python",
    "processes": 10,
    "working_directory": "/www/store/",
    "path": "/www/store/cart/",
    "home": "/www/store/.virtualenv/",
    "module": "wsgi",
    "user": "www",
    "group": "www"
}

Note

For examples of Python app configuration, see our Django and Flask howtos or a sample in Python.

Ruby§

First, make sure to install Unit along with the Ruby language module.

Besides common options, you have the following:

OptionDescription
script (required)Rack script path.

Example:

{
    "type": "ruby",
    "processes": 5,
    "user": "www",
    "group": "www",
    "script": "/www/cms/config.ru"
}

Note

For an example of Ruby app configuration, see our Redmine howto. Also, see a sample in Ruby.

Settings§

Unit has a global settings configuration object that stores instance-wide preferences. Its http option fine-tunes the handling of HTTP requests from the clients:

OptionDescription
header_read_timeout

Maximum number of seconds to read the header of a client’s request. If Unit doesn’t receive the entire header from the client within this interval, it responds with a 408 Request Timeout error.

The default value is 30.

body_read_timeout

Maximum number of seconds to read data from the body of a client’s request. It limits the interval between consecutive read operations, not the time to read the entire body. If Unit doesn’t receive any data from the client within this interval, it responds with a 408 Request Timeout error.

The default value is 30.

send_timeout

Maximum number of seconds to transmit data in the response to a client. It limits the interval between consecutive transmissions, not the entire response transmission. If the client doesn’t receive any data within this interval, Unit closes the connection.

The default value is 30.

idle_timeout

Maximum number of seconds between requests in a keep-alive connection. If no new requests arrive within this interval, Unit responds with a 408 Request Timeout error and closes the connection.

The default value is 180.

max_body_size

Maximum number of bytes in the body of a client’s request. If the body size exceeds this value, Unit responds with a 413 Payload Too Large error and closes the connection.

The default value is 8388608 (8 MB).

Example:

{
    "settings": {
        "http": {
            "header_read_timeout": 10,
            "body_read_timeout": 10,
            "send_timeout": 10,
            "idle_timeout": 120,
            "max_body_size": 6291456
        }
    }
}

Access Log§

To enable access logging, specify the log file path in the access_log option of the config object.

In the example below, all requests will be logged to /var/log/access.log:

# curl -X PUT -d '"/var/log/access.log"' \
       --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/config/access_log

    {
        "success": "Reconfiguration done."
    }

The log is written in the Combined Log Format. Example of a log line:

127.0.0.1 - - [21/Oct/2015:16:29:00 -0700] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 6022 "http://example.com/links.html" "Godzilla/5.0 (X11; Minix i286) Firefox/42"

SSL/TLS and Certificates§

To set up SSL/TLS access for your application, upload a .pem file containing your certificate chain and private key to Unit. Next, reference the uploaded bundle in the listener’s configuration. After that, the listener’s application becomes accessible via SSL/TLS.

First, create a .pem file with your certificate chain and private key:

$ cat cert.pem ca.pem key.pem > bundle.pem

Note

Usually, your website’s certificate (optionally followed by the intermediate CA certificate) is enough to build a certificate chain. If you add more certificates to your chain, order them leaf to root.

Upload the resulting file to Unit’s certificate storage under a suitable name:

# curl -X PUT --data-binary @bundle.pem --unix-socket \
       /path/to/control.unit.sock http://localhost/certificates/<bundle>

    {
        "success": "Certificate chain uploaded."
    }

Warning

Don’t use -d for file upload; this option damages .pem files. Use the --data-binary option when uploading file-based data with curl to avoid data corruption.

Internally, Unit stores uploaded certificate bundles along with other configuration data in its state subdirectory; Unit’s control API maps them to a separate configuration section, aptly named certificates:

{
    "certificates": {
        "<bundle>": {
            "key": "RSA (4096 bits)",
            "chain": [
                {
                    "subject": {
                        "common_name": "example.com",
                        "alt_names": [
                            "example.com",
                            "www.example.com"
                        ],

                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme, Inc."
                    },

                    "issuer": {
                        "common_name": "intermediate.ca.example.com",
                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme Certification Authority"
                    },

                    "validity": {
                        "since": "Sep 18 19:46:19 2018 GMT",
                        "until": "Jun 15 19:46:19 2021 GMT"
                    }
                },

                {
                    "subject": {
                        "common_name": "intermediate.ca.example.com",
                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme Certification Authority"
                    },

                    "issuer": {
                        "common_name": "root.ca.example.com",
                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme Root Certification Authority"
                    },

                    "validity": {
                        "since": "Feb 22 22:45:55 2016 GMT",
                        "until": "Feb 21 22:45:55 2019 GMT"
                    }
                },
            ]
        }
    }
}

Note

You can access individual certificates in your chain, as well as specific alternative names, by their indexes:

# curl -X GET --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/certificates/<bundle>/chain/0/
# curl -X GET --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/certificates/<bundle>/chain/0/subject/alt_names/0/

Next, add a tls object to the listener configuration, referencing the uploaded bundle in certificate:

{
    "listeners": {
        "127.0.0.1:8080": {
            "pass": "applications/wsgi-app",
            "tls": {
                "certificate": "<bundle>"
            }
        }
    }
}

The resulting control API configuration may look like this:

{
    "certificates": {
        "<bundle>": {
            "key": "<key type>",
            "chain": ["<certificate chain, omitted for brevity>"]
        }
    },

    "config": {
        "listeners": {
            "127.0.0.1:8080": {
                "pass": "applications/wsgi-app",
                "tls": {
                    "certificate": "<bundle>"
                }
            }
        },

        "applications": {
            "wsgi-app": {
                "type": "python",
                "module": "wsgi",
                "path": "/usr/www/wsgi-app/"
            }
        }
    }
}

Now you’re solid. The application is accessible via SSL/TLS:

$ curl -v https://127.0.0.1:8080
    ...
    * TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client hello (1):
    * TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Server hello (2):
    * TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Certificate (11):
    * TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Server finished (14):
    * TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client key exchange (16):
    * TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS change cipher, Client hello (1):
    * TLSv1.2 (OUT), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
    * TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS change cipher, Client hello (1):
    * TLSv1.2 (IN), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
    * SSL connection using TLSv1.2 / AES256-GCM-SHA384
    ...

Finally, you can DELETE a certificate bundle that you don’t need anymore from the storage:

# curl -X DELETE --unix-socket /path/to/control.unit.sock \
       http://localhost/certificates/<bundle>

    {
        "success": "Certificate deleted."
    }

Note

You can’t delete certificate bundles still referenced in your configuration, overwrite existing bundles using PUT, or (obviously) delete non-existent ones.

Happy SSLing!

Full Example§

{
    "certificates": {
        "bundle": {
            "key": "RSA (4096 bits)",
            "chain": [
                {
                    "subject": {
                        "common_name": "example.com",
                        "alt_names": [
                            "example.com",
                            "www.example.com"
                        ],

                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme, Inc."
                    },

                    "issuer": {
                        "common_name": "intermediate.ca.example.com",
                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme Certification Authority"
                    },

                    "validity": {
                        "since": "Sep 18 19:46:19 2018 GMT",
                        "until": "Jun 15 19:46:19 2021 GMT"
                    }
                },

                {
                    "subject": {
                        "common_name": "intermediate.ca.example.com",
                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme Certification Authority"
                    },

                    "issuer": {
                        "common_name": "root.ca.example.com",
                        "country": "US",
                        "state_or_province": "CA",
                        "organization": "Acme Root Certification Authority"
                    },

                    "validity": {
                        "since": "Feb 22 22:45:55 2016 GMT",
                        "until": "Feb 21 22:45:55 2019 GMT"
                    }
                }
            ]
        }
    },

    "config": {
        "settings": {
            "http": {
                "header_read_timeout": 10,
                "body_read_timeout": 10,
                "send_timeout": 10,
                "idle_timeout": 120,
                "max_body_size": 6291456
            }
        },

        "listeners": {
            "*:8000": {
                "pass": "routes",
                "tls": {
                    "certificate": "bundle"
                }
            },

            "127.0.0.1:8001": {
                "pass": "applications/drive"
            }
        },

        "routes": [
            {
                "match": {
                    "uri": "/admin/*",
                    "arguments": {
                        "mode": "strict",
                        "access": "!raw"
                    },

                    "cookies": {
                        "user_role": "admin"
                    }
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/cms"
                }
            },

            {
                "match": {
                    "host": ["blog.example.com", "blog.*.org"]
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/blogs"
                }
            },

            {
                "match": {
                    "host": "example.com",
                    "uri": "/chat/*"
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/chat"
                }
            },

            {
                "match": {
                    "host": "example.com"
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/store"
                }
            },

            {
                "match": {
                    "host": "wiki.example.com"
                },

                "action": {
                    "pass": "applications/wiki"
                }
            }
        ],

        "applications": {
            "blogs": {
                "type": "php",
                "root": "/www/blogs/scripts/",
                "limits": {
                    "timeout": 10,
                    "requests": 1000
                },

                "options": {
                    "file": "/etc/php.ini",
                    "admin": {
                        "memory_limit": "256M",
                        "variables_order": "EGPCS",
                        "expose_php": "0"
                    },

                    "user": {
                        "display_errors": "0"
                    }
                },

                "processes": 4
            },

            "chat": {
                "type": "external",
                "executable": "bin/chat_app",
                "group": "www-chat",
                "user": "www-chat",
                "working_directory": "/www/chat/"
            },

            "cms": {
                "type": "ruby",
                "script": "/www/cms/main.ru",
                "working_directory": "/www/cms/"
            },

            "drive": {
                "type": "perl",
                "script": "app.psgi",
                "processes": {
                    "max": 10,
                    "spare": 5,
                    "idle_timeout": 20
                },

                "working_directory": "/www/drive/"
            },

            "store": {
                "type": "java",
                "webapp": "/www/store/store.war",
                "classpath": ["/www/store/lib/store-2.0.0.jar"],
                "options": ["-Dlog_path=/var/log/store.log"]
            },

            "wiki": {
                "type": "python",
                "module": "wsgi",
                "environment": {
                    "DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE": "wiki.settings.prod",
                    "DB_ENGINE": "django.db.backends.postgresql",
                    "DB_NAME": "wiki",
                    "DB_HOST": "127.0.0.1",
                    "DB_PORT": "5432"
                },

                "path": "/www/wiki/",
                "processes": 10
            }
        },

        "access_log": "/var/log/access.log"
    }
}