NGINX Unit

Installation§

Prerequisites§

NGINX Unit compiles and runs on various Unix-like operating systems, including:

  • FreeBSD 10 or later
  • Linux 2.6 or later
  • macOS 10.6 or later
  • Solaris 11

It also supports most modern instruction set architectures, such as:

  • ARM
  • IA-32
  • PowerPC
  • MIPS
  • S390X
  • x86-64

App languages and platforms that Unit can run (including several versions of the same language):

  • Go 1.6 or later
  • Java 8 or later
  • Node.js 8.11 or later
  • PHP 5, 7
  • Perl 5.12 or later
  • Python 2.6, 2.7, 3
  • Ruby 2.0 or later

Docker Images§

To install and run Unit from NGINX’s Docker image repository:

$ docker pull nginx/unit
$ docker run -d nginx/unit

Default image tag is :latest; it resolves into a -full configuration of the latest Unit version. Other tags:

TagDescription
1.16.0-fullModules for all supported languages.
1.16.0-minimalNo language modules.
1.16.0-<language>A specific language module, for example 1.16.0-ruby2.3 or 1.16.0-python2.7.

We also publish these images as tarballs on our website:

$ curl -O https://packages.nginx.org/unit/docker/1.16.0/nginx-unit-1.16.0-full.tar.gz
$ curl -O https://packages.nginx.org/unit/docker/1.16.0/nginx-unit-1.16.0-full.tar.gz.sha512
$ sha512sum -c nginx-unit-1.16.0-full.tar.gz.sha512
      nginx-unit-1.16.0-full.tar.gz: OK
$ docker load < nginx-unit-1.16.0-full.tar.gz

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/control.unit.sock.

For further details, see the repository page and the official Howto.

Initial Configuration§

Official images support initial container configuration, implemented with an ENTRYPOINT script.

First, the script checks the Unit state directory (/var/lib/unit/ in official images) of the container. If it’s empty, the script processes certain file types in the container’s /docker-entrypoint.d/ directory:

File TypePurpose/Action
.pemCertificate bundles are uploaded under respective names: cert.pem to certificates/cert.
.jsonConfiguration snippets are uploaded as to the config section of Unit’s configuration.
.shShell scripts that run in the container after the .pem and .json files are uploaded.

Note

The script issues warnings about any other file types in the /docker-entrypoint.d/ directory. Also, your shell scripts must have execute permissions set.

This mechanism allows you to customize your containers at startup, reuse configurations, and automate your workflows, reducing manual effort. To use the feature, add COPY directives for certificate bundles, configuration fragments, and shell scripts to your Dockerfile derived from an official image:

FROM nginx/unit:1.16.0-minimal
COPY ./*.pem  /docker-entrypoint.d/
COPY ./*.json /docker-entrypoint.d/
COPY ./*.sh   /docker-entrypoint.d/

Note

Mind that running Unit even once populates its state directory; this prevents the script from executing, so this script-based initialization must occur before you run Unit within your derived image.

This feature comes in handy if you want to tie Unit to a certain app configuration for later use. For ad-hoc initialization, you can mount a directory with configuration files to a container at startup:

$ docker run -d --mount \
         type=bind,src=/path/to/config/files/,dst=/docker-entrypoint.d/ \
         nginx/unit:latest)

Official Packages§

Installing a precompiled Unit binary package is best for most occasions; official binaries are available for:

  • Amazon Linux, Amazon Linux 2
  • CentOS 6, 7, 8
  • Debian 8, 9, 10
  • Fedora 28, 29, 30, 31
  • RHEL 6, 7, 8
  • Ubuntu 16.04, 18.04, 18.10, 19.04, 19.10

These include core Unit executables, developer files, and support packages for individual languages.

We also maintain an official Homebrew tap for macOS users.

Note

Unit’s language module for Node.js is available at the npm registry.

Note

For details of packaging custom modules that install alongside the official Unit, see here.

Amazon Linux§

Supported architectures: x86-64.

  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/amzn2/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python27 unit-python37
    
  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/amzn/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-perl unit-php \
          unit-python27 unit-python34 unit-python35 unit-python36
    

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/unit/control.sock.

CentOS§

Supported architectures: x86-64.

  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/centos/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-jsc11 \
          unit-perl unit-php unit-python27 unit-python36
    

Supported architectures: i386, x86-64.

  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/centos/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-php unit-python
    

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/unit/control.sock.

Debian§

Supported architectures: i386, x86-64.

  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/debian/ buster unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/debian/ buster unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-go unit-jsc11 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python2.7 unit-python3.7 unit-ruby
    
  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/debian/ stretch unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/debian/ stretch unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python2.7 unit-python3.5 unit-ruby
    

Warning

Unit 1.12+ packages aren’t available for Debian 8. This distribution is obsolete; please update.

  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/debian/ jessie unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/debian/ jessie unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-perl unit-php unit-python2.7 \
          unit-python3.4 unit-ruby
    

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/control.unit.sock.

Fedora§

Supported architectures: x86-64.

  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/fedora/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc11 unit-jsc8 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python27 unit-python37 unit-ruby
    
  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/fedora/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python27 unit-python37 unit-ruby
    

Warning

Unit 1.12+ packages aren’t available for Fedora 28. This distribution is obsolete; please update.

  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/fedora/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python27 unit-python36 unit-ruby
    

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/unit/control.sock.

RHEL§

Supported architectures: x86-64.

  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/rhel/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-jsc11 \
          unit-perl unit-php unit-python27 unit-python36
    

Supported architectures: i386, x86-64.

  1. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/yum.repos.d/unit.repo:

    [unit]
    name=unit repo
    baseurl=https://packages.nginx.org/unit/rhel/$releasever/$basearch/
    gpgcheck=0
    enabled=1
    
  2. Install Unit base package and additional packages you would like to use:

    # yum install unit
    # yum install unit-devel unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python
    

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/unit/control.sock.

Ubuntu§

Supported architectures: x86-64.

  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ eoan unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ eoan unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-go unit-jsc11 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python2.7 unit-python3.7 unit-python3.8 unit-ruby
    

Supported architectures: i386, x86-64.

  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ disco unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ disco unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-go unit-jsc11 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python2.7 unit-python3.7 unit-ruby
    

Supported architectures: i386, x86-64.

Warning

Unit 1.12+ packages aren’t available for Ubuntu 18.10. This distribution is obsolete; please update.

  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ cosmic unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ cosmic unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-go1.10 unit-jsc8 unit-jsc11 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python2.7 unit-python3.6 unit-python3.7 unit-ruby
    

Supported architectures: arm64, i386, x86-64.

  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ bionic unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ bionic unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-jsc11 unit-perl \
          unit-php unit-python2.7 unit-python3.6 unit-python3.7 unit-ruby
    

Supported architectures: arm64, i386, x86-64.

  1. Download NGINX’s signing key and add it to apt’s keyring:

    # curl -sL https://nginx.org/keys/nginx_signing.key | apt-key add -
    

    This eliminates the ‘packages cannot be authenticated’ warnings during installation.

  2. To configure Unit repository, create the following file named /etc/apt/sources.list.d/unit.list:

    deb https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ xenial unit
    deb-src https://packages.nginx.org/unit/ubuntu/ xenial unit
    
  3. Install Unit base package and other packages you would like to use:

    # apt update
    # apt install unit
    # apt install unit-dev unit-go unit-jsc8 unit-perl unit-php \
          unit-python2.7 unit-python3.5 unit-ruby
    

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/control.unit.sock.

Homebrew§

To install Unit on macOS from our official Homebrew tap:

$ brew install nginx/unit/unit  # perform core installation
$ which unitd                   # confirm the executable location
      /usr/local/bin/unitd
$ unitd --version               # check ./configure flags
      unit version: 1.16.0

This deploys the Unit binary and the prerequisites for Go and Node.js language module installation.

To install Java, Perl, Python, and Ruby language modules from Homebrew:

$ brew install unit-java unit-perl unit-python unit-python3 unit-ruby

Note

Control socket is located here: /usr/local/var/run/unit/control.sock.

Go§

To install the Go language module:

$ go get unit.nginx.org/go

That’s it; now, you can use it to run your Go apps in Unit.

Node.js at npm§

Unit’s npm-hosted Node.js module is unit-http. Your Node.js apps must require it to run in Unit:

  1. First, install the unit-dev/unit-devel package, necessary to build unit-http.

  2. Next, build and install unit-http globally (this step requires npm and node-gyp):

    # npm install -g --unsafe-perm unit-http
    

    Warning

    The unit-http module is platform dependent due to optimizations; you can’t move it across systems with the rest of node-modules. Global installation avoids such scenarios; just relink the migrated app.

  3. After that, use the module in your Node.js app instead of the built-in http to run it in Unit. Mind that such frameworks as Express may require extra changes in your code.

If you update Unit later, make sure to update the module as well:

# npm update -g --unsafe-perm unit-http

Note

You can also configure and install the unit-http module from sources.

Startup and Shutdown§

Run unitd -h or unitd --version to verify Unit is available or list its settings. To manage the installation:

# systemctl enable unit
# systemctl restart unit
# systemctl stop unit
# systemctl disable unit

Community Repositories§

Warning

These distributions are maintained by respective communities, not NGINX. Proceed with caution.

Alpine Linux§

To install core Unit executables using Alpine Linux packages:

# apk update
# apk upgrade
# apk add unit

To install service manager files and specific language modules:

# apk add unit-openrc unit-perl unit-php7 unit-python3 unit-ruby

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /run/control.unit.sock.

Arch Linux§

To install Unit using the Arch User Repository (AUR):

# pacman -S git
$ git clone https://aur.archlinux.org/nginx-unit.git
$ cd nginx-unit

Warning

Verify that the PKGBUILD and accompanying files aren’t malicious or untrustworthy. AUR packages are entirely user produced without pre-moderation; use them at your own risk.

$ makepkg -si

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /run/nginx-unit.control.sock.

CentOS/RHEL SCLs§

If you use SCLo Software Collections in your environment, you can install Unit’s PHP modules as packages from the corresponding repo. Besides other dependencies, the packages require core Unit installation.

CentOS:

# yum install centos-release-scl
# yum install --enablerepo=centos-sclo-sclo-testing \
      sclo-php70-unit-php sclo-php71-unit-php sclo-php72-unit-php

RHEL:

# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
# curl -O https://copr.fedorainfracloud.org/coprs/rhscl/centos-release-scl/repo/epel-7/rhscl-centos-release-scl-epel-7.repo
# yum install centos-release-scl
# yum install --enablerepo=centos-sclo-sclo-testing \
      sclo-php70-unit-php sclo-php71-unit-php sclo-php72-unit-php

FreeBSD§

To install Unit using FreeBSD packages, update the repository and install the package:

# pkg install -y unit

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/unit/control.unit.sock.

To install Unit using FreeBSD ports, update your port collection.

For portsnap:

# portsnap fetch update

For svn:

# svn update /usr/ports

Next, browse to the port path to build and install the port:

# cd /usr/ports/www/unit
# make
# make install

Warning

These commands compile and install the port. To make a Unit build with our sources only, see below.

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/unit/control.unit.sock.

Gentoo§

To install Unit using Portage, update the repository and install the package:

# emerge --sync
# emerge www-servers/nginx-unit

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /run/nginx-unit.sock.

NixOS/Nix§

To install Unit using the Nix package manager, update the repository and install the package:

$ nix-channel --update
$ nix-env -qa 'unit'    # check availability and version
$ nix-env -i unit       # install Unit

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /run/unit/control.unit.sock.

Remi’s RPM Repo§

Remi’s RPM repository, which hosts the latest versions of the PHP stack for CentOS, Fedora, and RHEL, also has the base Unit package and the PHP modules.

To use Remi’s versions of Unit packages, configure Remi’s RPM repo first. Remi’s PHP language modules are also compatible with the base Unit package from our own repository.

Next, install Unit and the PHP modules you want:

# yum install --enablerepo=remi unit php54-unit-php php55-unit-php \
      php56-unit-php php70-unit-php php71-unit-php php72-unit-php php73-unit-php

Note

The control socket’s pathname is /var/run/unit/control.sock.

Source Code§

Obtaining Sources§

You can get Unit source code from our official Mercurial repository, its GitHub mirror, or in a tarball.

If you’d like to use Mercurial:

$ hg clone https://hg.nginx.org/unit
$ cd unit

If you prefer Git:

$ git clone https://github.com/nginx/unit
$ cd unit

To download sources directly from our site:

$ curl -O https://unit.nginx.org/download/unit-1.16.0.tar.gz
$ tar xzf unit-1.16.0.tar.gz
$ cd unit-1.16.0

Installing Required Software§

Before configuring and compiling Unit, install the required build tools plus the library files for available languages (Go, Node.js, PHP, Perl, Python, and Ruby) and the other features you want Unit to support.

The commands below assume you are configuring Unit with all supported languages and features; otherwise, skip the packages you aren’t going to use.

# apt install build-essential
# apt install golang
# curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_version.x | bash -
# apt install nodejs
# npm install -g node-gyp
# apt install php-dev libphp-embed
# apt install libperl-dev
# apt install python-dev
# apt install ruby-dev
# apt install openjdk-8-jdk
# apt install libssl-dev
# yum install gcc make
# yum install golang
# curl -sL https://rpm.nodesource.com/setup_version.x | bash -
# yum install nodejs
# npm install -g node-gyp
# yum install php-devel php-embedded
# yum install perl-devel perl-libs
# yum install python-devel
# yum install ruby-devel
# yum install java-1.8.0-openjdk-devel
# yum install openssl-devel

Ports:

# cd /usr/ports/lang/go/ && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/www/node/ && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/www/npm/ && make install clean && npm i -g node-gyp
# cd /usr/ports/lang/php73/ && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/lang/perl5.28/ && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/lang/python/ && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/lang/ruby25/ && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/java/openjdk8/ && make install clean
# cd /usr/ports/security/openssl/ && make install clean

Packages:

# pkg install go
# pkg install node && pkg install npm && npm i -g node-gyp
# pkg install php73
# pkg install perl5
# pkg install python
# pkg install ruby25
# pkg install openjdk8
# pkg install openssl
# pkg install gcc
# pkg install golang
# pkg install php-71
# pkg install ruby
# pkg install jdk-8
# pkg install openssl

Also, use gmake instead of make when building and installing Unit on Solaris.

Configuring Sources§

To run system compatibility checks and generate a Makefile with core build instructions for Unit:

$ ./configure <command-line options>

To finalize the resulting Makefile, configure the language modules you need.

General ./configure options:

--help

Displays a summary of common ./configure options.

For language-specific details, run ./configure <language> --help or see below.

These options control the compilation process:

--cc=pathname

Custom C compiler pathname.

The default is cc.

--cc-opt=options, --ld-opt=options
 Extra options for the C compiler and linker.

The following option pair controls Unit’s runtime privileges:

--group=name, --user=name
 

Group name and username to run Unit’s non-privileged processes.

The defaults are --user’s primary group and nobody, respectively.

These flags enable or disable support of certain features:

--debugTurns on the debug log.
--no-ipv6Turns off IPv6 support.
--no-unix-sockets
 Turns off Unix domain sockets support.
--openssl

Turns on OpenSSL support. Make sure that OpenSSL (1.0.1 and later) header files and libraries are available in your compiler’s search path.

To customize the path, provide the --cc-opt and --ld-opt options; you can also set the CFLAGS and LDFLAGS environment variables before running ./configure.

For details, see SSL/TLS and Certificates.

The last option group customizes Unit’s runtime directory structure:

--prefix=prefix
 Destination directory prefix for path options: --bindir, --sbindir, --libdir, --incdir, --modules, --state, --pid, --log, and --control.
--bindir=directory, --sbindir=directory
 

Directory paths for end-user and sysadmin executables.

The defaults are bin and sbin, respectively.

--control=socket
 

Control API socket address in IPv4, IPv6, or Unix (with unix: prefix) domain format:

$ ./configure --control=unix:/path/to/control.unit.sock
$ ./configure --control=127.0.0.1:8080
$ ./configure --control=[::1]:8080

Warning

For security reasons, avoid opening sockets on public interfaces in production.

The default is unix:control.unit.sock, created as root with 600 permissions.

--incdir=directory, --libdir=directory
 

Directory paths for libunit header files and libraries.

The defaults are include and lib, respectively.

--log=pathname

Pathname for Unit’s log.

The default is unit.log.

--modules=directory
 

Directory path for Unit’s language modules.

The default is modules.

--pid=pathname

Pathname for the PID file of Unit’s daemon process.

The default is unit.pid.

--state=directory
 

Directory path for Unit’s state storage. It contains runtime configuration, certificates, and other records; if you migrate your installation, copy the entire directory.

Warning

Unit state includes sensitive data and must be owned by root with 700 permissions. Avoid updating the directory by outside means; instead, use Unit’s config API to ensure data consistency.

The default is state.

--tmp=directory
 

Defines the temporary files location (used to dump large request bodies).

The default value is tmp.

Directory Structure§

To customize Unit installation and runtime directories, you can both:

  • Set the --prefix and path options (their relative settings are prefix-based) during configuration to set up the runtime file structure: Unit uses these settings to locate its modules, state, and other files.
  • Set the DESTDIR variable during installation. Unit’s file structure is placed at the specified directory, which can be either the final installation target or an intermediate staging location.

Coordinate these two options as necessary to customize the directory structure. One common scenario is installation based on absolute paths:

  1. Set absolute runtime paths with --prefix and path options:

    $ ./configure --state=/var/lib/unit --log=/var/log/unit.log \
                  --control=unix:/run/control.unit.sock --prefix=/usr/local/
    

    Configured thus, Unit will store its state, log, and control socket at custom locations; other files will have default prefix-based paths. Here, unitd is put to /usr/local/sbin/, modules to /usr/local/modules/.

  2. For further packaging or containerization, specify DESTDIR at installation to place the files in a staging location while preserving their relative structure. Otherwise, omit DESTDIR for direct installation.

An alternative scenario is a build that you can move around the filesystem:

  1. Set relative runtime paths with --prefix and path options:

    $ ./configure --state=config --log=log/unit.log \
                  --control=unix:control/control.unit.sock --prefix=movable
    

    Configured this way, Unit will store its files by prefix-based paths (both default and custom), for example, <working directory>/movable/sbin/ or <working directory>/movable/config/.

  2. Specify DESTDIR when installing the build. You can migrate such builds if needed; move the entire file structure and launch binaries from the base directory so that the relative paths stay valid:

    $ cd <DESTDIR>
    # movable/sbin/unitd <command-line options>
    

You can combine these approaches, but take care to understand how your settings work together.

Configuring Modules§

Next, configure a module for each language you want to use with Unit. The ./configure <language> commands set up individual language modules and place module-specific instructions in the Makefile.

Note

To run apps in several versions of a language, build and install a module for each version.

Configuring Go§

When you run ./configure go, Unit sets up the Go package that lets your applications run in Unit. To use the package, install it in your Go environment. Available configuration options:

--go=pathname

Specific Go executable pathname, also used for make targets.

The default is go.

--go-path=directory
 

Custom directory path for Go package installation.

The default is $GOPATH.

Note

The ./configure script doesn’t alter the GOPATH environment variable. The two paths (configuration-time --go-path and compile-time GOPATH) must be coherent at build time for Go to locate the Unit package.

Configuring Java§

When you run ./configure java, the script configures a module to support running Java Web Applications in Unit. Available command options:

--home=directory
 

Directory path for Java utilities and header files (required to build the module).

The default is the java.home setting.

--jars=directory
 

Directory path for Unit’s custom .jar files.

The default is the Java module path.

--lib-path=directory
 

Directory path for the libjvm.so library.

The default is based on JDK settings.

--local-repo=directory
 

Directory path for local .jar repository.

The default is $HOME/.m2/repository/.

--repo=directory
 

URL path for remote Maven repository.

The default is http://central.maven.org/maven2/.

--module=filename
 

Name of the Java module to be built (<module>.unit.so), also used for make targets.

The default is java.

To configure a module called java11.unit.so with OpenJDK 11.0.1:

$ ./configure java --module=java11 \
                   --home=/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/jdk-11.0.1.jdk/Contents/Home

Configuring Node.js§

When you run ./configure nodejs, Unit sets up the unit-http module that lets your applications run in Unit. Available configuration options:

--local=directory
 

Local directory path for Node.js module installation.

By default, the module is installed globally (recommended).

--node=pathname
 

Specific Node.js executable pathname, also used for make targets.

The default is node.

--npm=pathname

Specific NPM executable pathname.

The default is npm.

--node-gyp=pathname
 

Specific node-gyp executable pathname.

The default is node-gyp.

Configuring Perl§

When you run ./configure perl, the script configures a module to support running Perl scripts as applications in Unit. Available command options:

--perl=pathname
 

Specific Perl executable pathname.

The default is perl.

--module=filename
 

Name of the Perl module to be built (<module>.unit.so), also used for make targets.

The default is the filename of the --perl executable.

To configure a module called perl-5.20.unit.so for Perl 5.20.2:

$ ./configure perl --module=perl-5.20 \
                   --perl=perl5.20.2

Configuring PHP§

When you run ./configure php, the script configures a module to support running PHP applications in Unit via PHP’s embed SAPI. Available command options:

--config=pathname
 

Pathname of the php-config script invoked to configure the PHP module.

The default is php-config.

--lib-path=directory
 Directory path of PHP’s embed SAPI library file (libphp<version>.so or .a).
--lib-staticLinks the static embed SAPI library (libphp<version>.a) instead of the dynamic one (libphp<version>.so); requires --lib-path.
--module=filename
 

Name of the PHP module to be built (<module>.unit.so), also used for make targets.

The default is --config’s filename minus the -config suffix (/path/php7-config to php7).

To configure a module called php70.unit.so for PHP 7.0:

$ ./configure php --module=php70 \
                  --config=/usr/lib64/php7.0/bin/php-config \
                  --lib-path=/usr/lib64/php7.0/lib64

Configuring Python§

When you run ./configure python, the script configures a module to support running Python scripts as applications in Unit. Available command options:

--config=pathname
 

Pathname of the python-config script invoked to configure the Python module.

The default is python-config.

--lib-path=directory
 Custom directory path of the Python runtime library to use with Unit.
--module=filename
 

Name of the Python module to be built (<module>.unit.so), also used for make targets.

The default is --config’s filename minus the -config suffix (/path/python3-config to python3).

To configure a module called py33.unit.so for Python 3.3:

$ ./configure python --module=py33 \
                     --config=python-config-3.3

Configuring Ruby§

When you run ./configure ruby, the script configures a module to support running Ruby scripts as applications in Unit. Available command options:

--module=filename
 

Name of the Ruby module to be built (<module>.unit.so), also used for make targets.

The default is the filename of the --ruby executable.

--ruby=pathname
 

Specific Ruby executable pathname.

The default is ruby.

To configure a module called ru23.unit.so for Ruby 2.3:

$ ./configure ruby --module=ru23 \
                   --ruby=ruby23

Building and Installing Unit§

To build and install Unit executables and language modules that you have ./configure’d earlier:

$ make
# make install

You can also build and install language modules individually; the specific method depends on whether the language module is embedded in Unit or packaged externally.

Note

For further details about Unit language modules, see Working With Language Modules.

Embedded Language Modules§

To build and install Unit modules for Java, PHP, Perl, Python, or Ruby after configuration, run make <module> and make <module>-install, for example:

$ make perl-5.20
# make perl-5.20-install

External Language Modules§

To build and install Unit modules for Go and Node.js globally after configuration, run make <go>-install and make <node>-install, for example:

# make go-install
# make node-install

Note

To install the Node.js module locally, run make <node>-local-install:

# make node-local-install

If you haven’t specified the --local directory with ./configure nodejs earlier, provide it here: DESTDIR=/your/project/directory. If both options are specified, DESTDIR prefixes the --local value.

However, mind that global installation is the recommended method for the Node.js module.

If you customize the executable pathname with --go or --node, use the following pattern:

$ ./configure nodejs --node=/usr/local/bin/node8.12
# make /usr/local/bin/node8.12-install

$ ./configure go --go=/usr/local/bin/go1.7
# make /usr/local/bin/go1.7-install

Startup§

We advise installing Unit from precompiled packages; in this case, startup is configured automatically.

Even if you install Unit otherwise, manual startup isn’t recommended. Instead, configure a service manager such as OpenRC or systemd or create an rc.d script to launch the Unit daemon using the options below.

Run unitd as root from the sbin installation subdirectory. Usually, the default compile-time settings don’t require overrides; use the --help option to review their values. For details and security notes, see here.

General options:

--help, -hDisplays a summary of Unit’s command-line options and their default values set at compile time.
--no-daemonRuns Unit in non-daemon mode.
--versionDisplays Unit’s version and the ./configure settings it was built with.

The following options override compile-time settings:

--control socket
 

Control API socket address in IPv4, IPv6, or Unix (with unix: prefix) domain format:

# unitd --control unix:/path/to/control.unit.sock
# unitd --control 127.0.0.1:8080
# unitd --control [::1]:8080
--group name, --user name
 Group name and user name used to run Unit’s non-privileged processes.
--log pathnamePathname for the Unit log.
--modules directory
 Directory path for Unit language modules (<module>.unit.so files).
--pid pathnamePathname for the PID file of Unit’s main process.
--state directory
 Directory path for Unit state storage.